7 Reasons to Drink Green Tea

The steady stream of good news about green tea is getting so hard to ignore that even java junkies are beginning to sip mugs of the deceptively delicate brew. You'd think the daily dose of disease-fighting, inflammation-squelching antioxidants--long linked with heart protection--would be enough incentive, but wait, there's more! Lots more.

CUT YOUR CANCER RISK
Several polyphenols - the potent antioxidants green tea's famous for - seem to help keep cancer cells from gaining a foothold in the body, by discouraging their growth and then squelching the creation of new blood vessels that tumors need to thrive. Study after study has found that people who regularly drink green tea reduce their risk of breast, stomach, esophagus, colon, and/or prostate cancer.

SOOTHE YOUR SKIN
Got a cut, scrape, or bite, and a little leftover green tea? Soak a cotton pad in it. The tea is a natural antiseptic that relieves itching and swelling. Try it on inflamed breakouts and blemishes, sunburns, even puffy eyelids. And that's not all. In the lab, green tea helps block sun-triggered skin cancer, whether you drink it or apply it directly to the skin - which is why you're seeing green tea in more and more sunscreens and moisturizers.

STEADY YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE
Having healthy blood pressure - meaning below 120/80 - is one thing. Keeping it that way is quite another. But people who sip just half a cup a day are almost 50 percent less likely to wind up with hypertension than non-drinkers. Credit goes to the polyphenols again (especially one known as ECGC). They help keep blood vessels from contracting and raising blood pressure.

PROTECT YOUR MEMORY, OR YOUR MOM'S
Green tea may also keep the brain from turning fuzzy. Getting-up-there adults who drink at least two cups a day are half as likely to develop cognitive problems as those who drink less. Why? It appears that the tea's big dose of antioxidants fights the free-radical damage to brain nerves seen in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

STAY YOUNG
The younger and healthier your arteries are, the younger and healthier you are. So fight plaque build-up in your blood vessels, which ups the risk of heart disease and stroke, adds years to your biological age (or RealAge), and saps your energy too. How much green tea does this vital job take? About 10 ounces a day, which also deters your body from absorbing artery-clogging fat and cholesterol.

LOSE WEIGHT
Oh yeah, one more thing. Turns out that green tea speeds up your body's calorie-burning process. In the every-little-bit-counts department, this is good news!

(source : yahoo!)

Vegetarian

Perdebatan antara menjadi vegetarian atau tidak bukanlah hal baru. Banyak keuntungan untuk menjadi vegetarian. Tertarik mengetahui lebih lanjut keuntungannya ? Anda bisa lihat terjemahan selengkapnya di link berikut

http://id.shvoong.com/medicine-and-health/nutrition/1774876-vegetarianism/

7 dari 10 Orang Indonesia Mengalami Penuaan Dini

Tidak tahukah Anda betapa pentingnya kesehatan kulit? Kulit merupakan bagian dari organ eksternal tubuh yang sangat penting bagi manusia. Akan tetapi keberadaannya kerap kali tidak menjadi perhatian bagi kita. Padahal kulit merupakan lapisan paling luar tubuh yang melindungi organ-organ tubuh lainnya yang ada didalamnya dari segala macam gangguan alam, baik itu virus ataupun bakteri.

Kesadaran manusia untuk menjaga kebersihan dan kesehatan khususnya di Indonesia sangatlah minim sekali. Menurut sebagian orang, dengan mandi setiap hari saja sudah cukup dalam menjaga kebersihan dan kesehatan kulit, akan tetapi hal tersebut sangatlah tidak cukup, apalagi bagi kita yang tinggal dikota besar seperti Jakarta ini, yang memiliki tingkat mobiliIsasi yang sangat tinggi serta didukung keadaan lingkungan yang saat-saat ini sangat tidak menentu. Dari sebab itu, cobalah Anda memulai untuk menyadari betapa pentingnya kulit dalam hidup Anda.

Salah satu dampak dari kurangnya menjaga kebersihan dan kesehatan kulit adalah Penuaan Dini. Sebenarnya, apakah hal ini menjadi pusat perhatian bagi kebanyakan orang? Sebelum kita sampai pada tahap itu, marilah kita simak terlebih dahulu apa sebenarnya arti dari penuaan dini.

Penuaan dini adalah proses dari penuaan kulit yang lebih cepat dari seharusnya. Banyak orang yang mulai melihat timbulnya kerutan kulit wajah pada usia yang relatif muda, bahkan pada usia di awal 20-an. Hal ini biasanya disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor, baik internal maupun eksternal, seperti tingkat pengkonsumsian kadar alkohol yang berlebih, minuman yang mengandung kafein (kopi), stress yang berkepanjangan, kurangnya mengkonsumsi buah dan sayuran, kurangnya istirahat, aktifitas yang lebih dibawah sinar ultra violet ataupun terlalu lama beraktifitas didalam ruangan ber AC, mengkonsumsi makanan yang berkarbohidrat tinggi, perokok baik itu aktif maupun pasif, kurangnya olahraga, dan yang paling sering diabaikan oleh kita adalah kurangnya minim air putih yang memenuhi standar per hari sebanyak 8 gelas. Nah, jika hal-hal tersebut diatas belum Anda perhatikan, sekaranglah waktunya untuk meninjau kembali apakah anda menyayangi kulit Anda atau tidak.

Survei mengatakan bahwa 7 diantara 10 orang Indonesia akan mengalami penuaan dini. Jadi betapa harus mawas dirinya Anda ketika penuaan itu akan datang. Dari penyebab-penyebab yang disebutkan pada poin diatas, penyebab penuaan dini yang dialami oleh orang Indonesia rata-rata adalah stres, aktifitas yang lebih dibawah sianr matahari dan ruangan ber-AC, serta kurangnya mengkonsumsi air putih sebanyak 8 gelas per hari. Selain itu banyak lagi faktor-faktor lain yang menyebabkan penuaan dini
seperti radiasi sinar x, polusi udara yang berasal dari mobil, pabrik, freon, asap rokok, bahan-bahan kimia eksogen dan endogen. Cara perawatan kulit yang salah, memakai produk perawatan kulit yang keliru, kelembaban udara yang sangat rendah, sampai suhu udara panas dan dingin yang akan menyebabkan penguapan air dari kulit sehingga menyebabkan kulit menjadi kering.

Pengaruh sinar matahari yang menahun atau kronis, menyebabkan kerusakan kulit akibat efek fotobiologis sinar UV yang menghasilkan radikal bebas akan menimbulkan kerusakan protein dan asam amino yang merupakan struktur utama kolagen dan elastin, kerusakan pembuluh darah kulit dan menimbulkan pigmentasi kulit.

Hal-hal tersebut diatas baru sebagian dari faktor penyebab dari penuaan dini, masih ada banyak lagi faktor-faktor yang menyebabkannya. Akan tetapi hal-hal tersebut diatas merupakan hal yang paling dekat dengan kita, apalagi yang berdomisili di ibu kota besar seperti di Jakarta. Maka dari itulah kita harus waspada dari kemungkinan-kemungkinan tersebut diatas. Caranya? Menjaga kesehatan kulit pada khususnya dan kesehatan tubuh pada umumnya dengan memakan makanan bergizi dan berolah raga secara teratur. Sayangilah diri Anda, sebab kalau bukan Anda, siapa lagi?

Sumber: Male Emporium

Owning a Cat Good for the Heart?

Study Shows Cat Owners Less Likely to Die From Heart Attacks
By Charlene
Laino
WebMD Medical News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD


Feb. 21, 2008 (New Orleans) -- Your cat may bring you a lot more than unconditional love after a tough day.

A new study shows that cat owners are less likely to die of a heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases than people who have never had a pet cat.

The findings emerged from an analysis of data on nearly 4,500 men and women, ages 30 to 75, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study. All were free of cardiovascular disease when they entered the study in the 1970s.

Over half, 55%, reported having a pet cat at some point in their lives.

Compared with cat owners, people who never had a pet cat were 40% more likely to die of a heart attack over the 20-year study period. They were also 30% more likely to die of any cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart failure, and chronic heart disease.

The results held true even after the researchers took into account other risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including age, gender, race, blood pressure, and smoking.

The researchers found no such link for people who had a pet dog.

The findings were presented here at the American Stroke Association's (ASA) International Stroke Conference.

(Are you a cat lover? Would you get a cat if you thought it would lower your risk for heart disease? Discuss your furry friends on WebMD's Pets: Healing with Love board.)
Cat Lovers Have Less Stress

Researcher Farhan Siddiq, MD, director of the Minnesota Stroke Institute at the University of Minnesota, says he thinks that pet lovers share personality characteristics such as low stress and anxiety levels that protect them against heart disease and stroke.

"Dog owners probably have the same characteristics, even though the data don't support it," he adds.

ASA spokesman Daniel Lackland, MD, a stroke expert at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, agrees that both cats and dogs "are good, they make you feel better. And studies have shown that a general feeling of well-being is linked to better overall health."

But, Lackland stresses, the findings should not detract from the critical value of controlling blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes.

So should you go out and buy a cat in hopes of cutting your risk of dying of a heart attack? "For other medical interventions, we would need more evidence. But this has minimal risk -- unless you're allergic," Siddiq tells WebMD.

Omega-3 Pills for Stroke: A Fish Story?

Study Shows Supplements Flounder in Preventing Stroke; Fish Diet May Be Better


By Charlene Laino
WebMD Medical NewsReviewed by Louise Chang, MDFeb.


22, 2008 (New Orleans) -- Fish oil supplements don't pack the same stroke-preventive punch as a diet rich in fish, a new study suggests.

Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as fatty fish and some plant and nut oils, such as olive and walnut, has been shown to lower the risk of heart disease and stroke. Several public health organizations have recommended that people eat more oily fish, such as salmon and tuna.

But the role of omega-3 supplements in fighting cardiovascular disease has been less clear. Some studies show they have a protective effect and others show the opposite, says Craig Anderson, MD, director of the neurological and mental health division at the George Institute for International Health at the University of Sydney in Australia.

Anderson reasoned that if the supplements were really working to prevent stroke, they would modify the underlying disease process by lowering cholesterol and preventing blood clotting and other factors that contribute to stroke.

"What did we show? Nothing," Anderson tells WebMD. "The supplements didn't work."

Fish Oil Fails
The study, presented at the American Stroke Association's International Stroke Conference, involved 102 men and women who had suffered an ischemic stroke.

The most common type of stroke, an ischemic stroke occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is compromised by a blood clot. This leads to the death of brain cells and brain damage.

"We focused on ischemic stroke patients because they're highly motivated to follow preventive measures, they're at high risk of recurrent stroke, and they haven't been studied before," Anderson says.

The participants were randomly assigned to take either a daily fish oil supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks.

The supplements used in the study contained "more concentrated, fresher omega oils than can be bought in most health food stores," Anderson says.

Results shows that the supplements had no effect on any of the parameters measured, including total cholesterol, LDL "bad" cholesterol, HDL "good" cholesterol, and other lipid levels. There was no change in markers of the tendency of blood to clot and no evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Inflammation of the blood vessels may play a role on causing stroke.

Jeffrey Saver, MD, vice chairman of the American Heart Association's Stroke Council and a professor of neurology at UCLA, says the findings are "disappointing."

"This is one of the first studies of its kind. But [there were limitations, chiefly its] small size and the fact that they looked only at physiological outcome measures and not at clinical outcomes such as prevention of second stroke."

Anderson agrees that further study looking at whether the pills can cut strokes and deaths is merited.

"But this is a real thorn. For now, I recommend that people don't throw their money away on fish oil supplements. Fresh fish may be a better choice," he says.

Every year, about 780,000 Americans have a stroke, according to the American Stroke Association. On average, a person dies of a stroke every three to four minutes.

Tulang Juga Perlu Dimanja

Tulang adalah kerangka penyangga tubuh, pelindung organ tubuh dari benturan, dan tempat terkaitnya otot sehingga memungkinkan otot melakukan pergerakan antara sambungan tulang yang satu dengan yang lain. Dengan kata lain, tulang merupakan penunjang utama aktivitas fisik. Ingin tetap tampil tegap dan kuat diusia senja? Sayangi tulang Anda sejak dini.
Jangan dikira semakin bertambah tua, tulang akan tetap kerasdan kuat. Tetapi seiring bertambahnya usia, apalagi nutrisi untuk tulang tidak dihiraukan, lambat laun massa tulang akan menipis hingga Anda beresiko terkena osteoporosis. Sebagian besar dari Anda pasti sering mendengar osteoporosis, yaitu kondisi dimana massa tulang menurun sehingga tulang menjadi tipis, keropos, rapuh dan mudah patch. Penyusun utama tulang sesungguhnya adalah mineral tulang yang mengandung kalsium, fosfor dan protein yang disebut kolagen. Struktur tulang mirip beton untuk bangunan atau jembatan. Komponen kalsium dan fosfor membuat tulang keras dan kaku mirip semen, sedang serat-serat kolagennya membuat tulang mirip kawat baja pada tembok.

Tulang adalah jaringan hidup yang harus terus diperbaharui untuk menjaga kekuatannya. Tulang yang tua selalu dirusak dan digantikan oleh tulang yang baru dan kuat. Ada 2 jenis sel utama dalam tulang, yakni osteoklast (yang merusak tulang) dan osteoblast (yang membentuk tulang baru). Kedua sel ini dibentuk dalam sumsung tulang.

Menurut Prof. DR. Dr. Ichramsjah
A. Rachman, SpOG-KFER menyatakan, Osteoporosis adalah keadaan dimana penurunan massa tulang seiring dengan bertambahnya usia, dihubungkan dengar perubahan tulang sehingga tercapai ambang patah tulang tanpa keluhan-keluhan klinis khas yang sangat mengganggu. "Meski banyak terjadi pada wanita post menopause dimana satu di antara tiga wanita rentan terkena osteoporosis, tetapi juga mengancam satu di antara lima pria diatas usia 50 tahun," jelas dokter yang juga Ketua Perhimpunan Osteoporosis Indonesia (Perosi).

Penyakit yang dikenal dengan keropos tulang ini memang biasanya dialami oleh orang yang berusia lanjut. Berdasarkan data Departemen Kesehatan RI, seiring dengan bertambahnya usia harapan hidup masyarakat Indonesia yang meningkat dari 64,71 di tahun 1995 - 2000, menjadi 67,68 di tahun 2000 - 2005, clan populasi penduduk lanjut usia mencapai 18,4 juta di 2005, 19,7% dari populasi tersebut menderita osteoporosis. Akan tetapi, osteoporosis juga merupakan silent desease sehingga tidak heran seringkali penderita tak menyadari bahwa dirinya mengalami keropos tulang.

Gaya hidup yang salah seperti kurang bergerak, merokok, minum kopi, dan alkohol, menyebabkan banyaknya pengeluaran kalsium melalui air seni sehingga menyebabkan berkurangnya kepadatan tulang dan meningkatkan resiko fraktur. Terutama mengonsumsi minuman beralkohol secara berlebihan dan berulang, telah lama diketahui dapat menyebabkan osteoporosis.

Penyakit ini sering kali terjadi pada wanita karena dihubungkan dengan penurunan hormon wanita yaitu estrogen yang sangat erat kaitannya dalam pembentukan dan penyerapan tulang. Pada kadar estrogen yang normal, pembentukan tulang baru untuk mengganti tulang tua yang dirusak seimbang. Pada kadar estrogen rendah yang seiring juga dengan penurunan jaringan akibat tuanya usia perusakan tulang lebih banyak terjadi dari pada pembentukan tulang baru. Sementara insiden osteoporosis pada pria lebih rendah dari pada wanita, karena pria dapat mencapai massa tulang puncak yang lebih tinggi serta tingkat kehilangan massa tulang kortikol juga lebih rendah. Pria yang mengalami masalah pada tulang mungkin disebabkan berkurangnya pembentukan massa tulang dan bukan akibat meningkatnya resorsi massa tulang.

Masa puncak pertumbuhan tulang, baik pada wanita maupun pria tercapai pada usia sekitar 30 tahun, kemudian mulai terjadi berkurangnya kepadatan tulang sekitar 0,4 % per tahun. Pada wanita, selama 5-8 tahun pertama pascamenopause terjadi berkurangnya kepadatan tulang sekitar 40-50 % dari massa tulangnya, sedangkan pria hanya mengalami kehilangan massa tulang sekitar 20-30 % dari massa tulangnya.

Tetapi bukan berarti pria harus berleha-leha terhadap ancaman osteoporosis. Berkurangnya massa atau kepadatan tulang dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor yang berperan terhadap metabolisme tulang, antara lain faktor keturunan, kurangnya zat-zat makanan seperti kalsium, fosfat, vitamin D, antioksidan, beberapa jenis hormon, dan gaya hidup yang salah seperti kurang bergerak, merokok, minum kopi, alkohol, serta beberapa penyakit yang mempengaruhi metabolisme tulang.

Meminum kopi yang mengandung kafein juga dapat menyebabkan banyaKnya pengeluaran Kaisium melalui air seni, sehingga menyebabkan berkurangnya kepadatan tulang dan meningkatkan resiko fraktur. Konsumsi minuman beralkohol secara berlebihan, telah lama diketahui dapat menyebabkan osteoporosis. Bila Anda seorang pecandu alkohol, berarti Anda merusak tulang-tulang Anda. Alkohol mempunyai efek langsung pada tulang dan konsumsi yang melebihi 7 liter per minggu yang tentunya dapat meningkatkan kehilangan massa tulang dan resiko fraktur.

Cegah Lebih Dini
Mencegah lebih baik daripada mengobati. Tentunya hal ini berlaku pula untuk pencegahan osteoporosis. Seperti diungkap di atas, bahwa banyak di antara kita yang tidak menyadari bahwa dirinya dapat terancam osteoporosis. Karena kemunculannya yang tidak disertai dengan gejala. Resiko terkena osteoporosis semakin terbuka bila kurang memperhatikan kebutuhan nutrisi untuk tulang. Akibatnya, lambat laun osteoporosis bisa menggerogoti massa tulang sehingga ancaman patch tulang pun bisa terjadi.

Salah satu kiat mencegahnya adalah dengan mengupayakan untuk mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung nutrisi bagi tulang sehingga dapat dihindari sejak dini. Meskipun kita tinggal di wilayah garis khatulistiwa dimana paparan sinar matahari dapat kita nikmati sepanjang tahun, tapi kita tetap beresiko mengalami kekurangan vitamin D. Kegiatan yang sebagian besar waktunya berlangsung di ruangan tertutup, misalnya di gedung perkantoran atau pabrik yang tidak mendapat sinar matahari langsung, merupakan salah satu penyebabnya. Kebiasaan menggunakan pakaian yang menutupi sebagian besar tubuh Anda juga berperan menghambat masuknya radiasi sinar ultraviolet ke kulit. Akibatnya adalah berkurangnya sintesa vitamin D di kulit. Tetapi perlu diingat, sinar matahari dapat juga berbahaya. Membiarkan tubuh berlama-lama di bawah sinar matahari dapat membakar kulit, meningkatkan resiko kanker kulit, mempercepat proses penuaan, merusak mata, hingga menyebabkan katarak.

Vitamin D berperan meningkatkan efisiensi penyerapan kalsium di usus. Vitamin D menolong darah untuk menghasilkan kalsium dan fosfor, yang membangun dan memperbaiki massa tulang. Tanpa vitamin D, usus manusia hanya mampu menyerap 10-15 persen kalsium dalam makanan. Apa bila vitamin D cukup, efisiensi penyerapan kalsium dapat mencapai 30 persen.

Terkait dengan gencarnya iklan susu yang mengandung kalsium, tidak sepenuhnya susu yang dipromosikan tersebut mampu memenuhi kebutuhan kalsium bagi tubuh apalagi tulang. Sebab, jika terlalu banyak mengkonsumsi susu berkalsium, hal ini akan mempengaruhi batu ginjal. Karena, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan kalsium dari susu, minimal setiap hari harus minum susu sebanyak 16 gelas. Konsumsi susu sebanyak itu jelas tidak mungkin dilakukan.

Sayuran hijau, sayur-sayuran berdaun lebar, tahu, ikan sarden, dan salmon juga merupakan sumber makanan yang mengandung kalsium. Atau silahkan memakan pizza dan roti keju panggang karena di sana juga terdapat kalsium. Perlu pula mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung banyak antioksidan seperti vitamin A yang terdapat dalam wortel, kentang, pepaya, labu, bunga kol, kangkung, semangka. Vitamin C yang terdapat dalam jeruk, pepaya, kecambah brussels, kangkung, strawberry, atau vitamin E yang terdapat dalam minyak nabati, tauge, mineral selenium yang terdapat dalam bawang putih, kubis, wortel, lobak, bunga kol, salada, mentimun, ikan, mineral seng yang terdapat dalam hati clan daging hewani, kacang-kacangan dan lain-lain. Jadi, tidak ada salahnya memanjakan tulang Anda, demi tampil tegap di hari tua. ® Irw

Osteoporosis sering ditandai dengan :

  • Terjadinya patah tulang secara tiba-tiba karena trauma yang ringan atau tanpa trauma.
  • Timbulnya rasa nyeri yang hebat sehingga penderita tidak dapat melakukan pergerakan.
  • Tinggi badan berkurang clan bongkok

Cara-cara pencegahan osteoporosis :

  • Rajin berolah raga
  • Upayakan mencapai berat tubuh yang ideal
  • Penuhi kebutuhan nutrisi tulang dengan menambah Kalsium dan vit. D
  • Hilangkan kebiasaan seperti merokok, mengonsumsi alkohol clan kafein.
  • Berjemur ± 15 menit di bawah sinar matahari pagi atau sore hari, membantu tubuh untuk mensintesa atau membuat vitamin D-nya sendiri
  • Upayakan menghindari cedera (khususnyajatuh)

Sumber: Male Emporium

Music Mends Minds After Stroke

Listening to Favorite CDs Speeds Stroke Recovery
By Daniel J. DeNoon
WebMD Medical NewsReviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MDFeb.


19, 2008 -- Listening to their favorite music helps stroke patients recover mental function and makes them less depressed and confused, Finnish researchers find.

The study, by neuroscientists working together with music therapists, is the first to show that listening to music soon after stroke can have specific treatment effects.

"Our research shows for the first time that listening to music during this crucial period can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood," study researcher Teppo Sarkamo, a doctoral student at the University of Helsinki, Finland, said in a news release.

It's scientific validation of something music therapists have been working on for decades, says board-certified music therapist Concetta M. Tomaino, DA, executive director of the Institute for Music and Neurologic Function and senior vice president for music therapy at Beth Abraham Family of Health Services in New York. Tomaino was not involved in the Finnish study.

"It is very exciting for me to see in this scientific study something I have been talking about for 20 years," Tomaino tells WebMD. "Our focus has been on discovering the elements of music and music therapy that can help with recovery of cognitive and language function."

(Did you listen to music after your stroke? Play music for your loved one who had a stroke? Talk about it on WebMD's Stroke: Support Group message board.)

Music Stimulates Neural Networks
Sarkamo and colleagues randomly assigned 60 stroke patients to a music group, a language group, or a control group. All patients received standard stroke rehabilitation treatment. Those in the music group were provided with CD players and CDs of their favorite music in any musical genre. Those in the language group got tape players and books on tape.

Patients assigned to the music and language groups were told to listen to music CDs or books on tape for at least one hour every day for the first two months after their stroke. All patients kept listening diaries; hospital staff and caretakers encouraged listening and, when necessary, helped patients work the CD/tape players.

"We found that three months after the stroke, verbal memory improved from the first week post-stroke by 60% in music listeners, by 18% in audio-book listeners, and by 29% in non-listeners," Sarkamo says. "Similarly, focused attention -- the ability to control and perform mental operations and resolve conflicts among responses -- improved by 17% in music listeners, but no improvement was observed in audio-book listeners and non-listeners."

These between-group differences persisted six months after stroke. In addition, the music group had a less depressed and confused mood than the non-listener group.

"What these researchers show so eloquently is that music attracts attention from several parts of the brain simultaneously," Tomaino says. "Stroke damage is in a localized region. Music stimulates neural networks that bypass this region. This allows the recovery to take place."

Tomaino says the Finnish researchers were successful because they were careful to find music that the patients found both interesting and emotionally stimulating.

"To recover function, there are two fundamental pieces to music therapy," she says. "One, it has to grab your attention, and two, it has to move you. Music is complex. It has both analytic and emotional components and involves both sides of the brain. In stroke, attention and mood are most damaged. What this study shows is that just listening to something that holds your attention and moves you can improve function in the damaged areas of the brain."

Sarkamo cautions that more research is needed to validate the results of the study. And he notes that what works for one stroke patient may not work for another.

"I would caution people not to interpret this as evidence that music listening works for every individual patient," he says. "Rather than an alternative, music listening should be considered as an addition to other active forms of therapy such as speech therapy or neuropsychological rehabilitation."

Gangliosida nutrisi untuk otak

Setiap bayi terlahir dengan 100 miliar sel di otaknya. Perlu nutrisi dan stimulasi agar proses konstruksi otak optimal.


Nutrisi dan stimulasi sangat penting, terutama pada masa dua tahun pertama perkembangan anak, menurut spesialis anak dan konsultan tumbuh kembang dari FKUI/RSCM, dr Soejdatmiko SpA(k)Msi.

Sel-sel pada otak bayi belum sepenuhnya terhubung. Bila diibaratkan dengan jalan, maka jalan yang makin sering digunakan akan diperlebar. Jalan yang jarang dilalui akan ditinggalkan atau ditutup.

Perkembangan pada bayi berlangsung cepat pada usia 6 bln - 2 tahun. Masa konstruksi ini, banyak sel saraf yang terbentuk dan terpakai. Hubungan antar sel semakin kuat akan membuat "peta otak" saling terjalin dan tersebar akan membuat kemampuan bayi untuk belajar dan mengingat semakin kuat.


Salah satu nutrisi penting adalah gangliosida yang berperan dalam pembentkan dan pertumbuhan sel sara. Juga sebagai modulator yang melakukan transmisi informasi dan menyimpan data. Makin banyak sel saraf, makin kuat daya ingat anak.

Gangliosida (GA) adalah glycosphingolipids kompleks yang merupakan sejenis lemak atau asam lemak. Zat ini menyumbang 10% total massa lemak otak. Konsentrasi gangliosida tertinggi terdapat di area abu-abu otak, tepatnya pada otak besar dan cerebral cortex yang merupakan area penting pembentukan memori.

Sumber GA yang penting adalah ASI (Air Susu Ibu), terutama saat 6 minggu pertama menyusui. Juga terdapat pada susu, telur dan daging. Namun GA bukan satu-satunya zat penting otak. Proses tumbuh kembang memerlukan beragam nutrisi untuk menunjang fungsi kognitif dalam jangka waktu lama. Antara lain protein, asam amino, zat besi, seng, tembaga, folat, iodium dan vitamin A.

Kekurangan zat besi banyak terjadi di Indonesia. Ditandai dengan tingginya angka Anemia di Indonesia. Kekurangan zat besi dapat menimulkan gangguan pada anak, seperti sulit memusatkan perhatian dan lambat menerima informasi.

Terkait dengan stimulasi, makin sering otak diasah dan dipakai, makin luas pula cabang jejaringnya. Perlu diingat, selama proses perkembangan, sel-sel ini ada fase rontok jika tidak distimulasi.

sumber : sindo

Lelaki lebih rentan terkena kanker hati

Perbedaan sangat mendasar ditunjukkan tubuh laki-laki dan perempuan terhadap resiko terkena kanker hati, dan penyebabnya terletak di unsur genetik berdasarkan jender, demikian kesimpulan penelitian yang dilakukan para ahli di Institut Teknologi Massachusetts (MIT).

Ini adalah kajian genome pertama yang menjelaskan kaitan antara gender dan kanker non-organ reproduksi, kata Arlin Rogers, pakar patologi dan ketua tim peneliti MIT.

Menurut penelitian yang dipublikasikan di jurnal ilmiah "Cancer Research" itu, laki-laki berpotensi terkena kanker hati dua kali lebih besar daripada perempuan di Amerika Serikat. Di negara lain, terutama Asia, angka potensi ini bisa lebih tinggi, yakni 8-10 kali lipat lebih besar.

Kanker hati adalah jenis kanker tersering nomor 5 di dunia, dan penyebab kematian urutan ke-3 terbesar. Angka kanker hati di Amerika lebih rendah daripada di negara-negara lain, tapi trennya menunjukkan peningkatan yang drastis akibat infeksi hepatitis C lewat transfusi darah yang terus melonjak sejak 1970-an dan tentunya penyalahgunaan obat-obatan terlarang.

Faktor lain yang memicu angka kanker hati adalah masalah obesitas dan diabetes, yang terus menjadi perhatian pemerintah.

Rogers menjelaskan bahwa hati laki-laki dan perempuan punya perbedaan yang cukup kentara.

Perbedaan ini sangat jelas terlihat semasa periode pubertas, yakni ketika organ hati laki-laki lebih terekspos pertumbuhan hormon. Hal ini kemudian menyebabkan organ hati laki-laki dan perempuan menunjukkan reaksi yang berbeda terhadap antibiotik dan obat-obatan serupa.

Dalam penelitiannya, para ilmuwan MIT mengkaji tikus yang juga punya tren lebih tinggi mengalami kanker hati pada jenis kelamin laki dibandingkan dengan yang perempuan.

Tikus itu kemudian disuntikkan bakteri hepatitis - yang memproduksi gejala hepatitis yang sama dengan karakter hepatitis B dan C pada manusia.

Baik pada manusia dan tikus, laki-laki dan perempuan yang sehat bisa menunjukkan reaksi terhadap racun akut dan tekanan-tekanan lain. Tapi organ hati laki-laki ternyata tidak selengkap organ hati perempuan untuk menghadapi peradangan kronis yang muncul akibat infeksi zat-zat tertentu.

Ketika tikus jantan menghadapi hepatitis kronis, sebagian gen maskulin di hati ditingkatkan kerjanya, sebagian lain gen dihentikan aktifitasnya. Pada saat bersamaan, sebagian gen feminin diaktifkan ulang.

Akibat hal ini, para peneliti mencatat bahwa profil gen kemudian menjadi tidak jelas, istilahnya "kekacauan gender-hati" .

"Tidak ada alasan atau pola. Cuma memang kacau saja antara gen maskulin dengan gen feminin," kata Rogers.

Masih menurut hasil kajian para ahli, gen berdasarkan jenis kelamin ternyata menunjukkan reaksi yang berbeda terhadap radang infeksi.

Gen laki-laki saat berhadapan dengan hepatitis kronis bereaksi sebagian kelebihan beban, sebagian lainnya kekurangan beban, sehingga organ hati tidak bisa mempertahankan fungsi metabolisme yang normal saat kanker muncul.

Sementara itu perempuan dewasa relatif lebih rendah potensi terkena kanker hati, karena gen di organ hati tidak merasa perlu berganti menjadi gen maskulin untuk menghadapi kanker, demikian Rogers.

WHO memperkirakan ada lebih dari 180 juta orang di dunia telah terinfeksi hepatitis C, dan lebih dari 400 juta orang lainnya hidup dengan hepatitis B. Bahkan beberapa pakar kesehatan mengatakan virus hepatitis 100 kali lebih mudah menular dibandingkan dengan HIV.

Yang paling ditakuti dari penyakit ini adalah potensi berkembangnya penyakit ini menjadi kanker hati atau sirosis yang dapat berakhir pada kegagalan fungsi hati dan mengakibatkan kematian.

Jika dirunut berdasarkan jumlah angka kematian pasien, sirosis menempati posisi ketujuh sebagai penyakit kronis yang mematikan. Oleh karena itu kewaspadaan akan penyakit ini menjadi hal penting, mengingat penularannya kadang tidak disadari oleh pasien.

Apalagi faktor penyebaran virus di Indonesia berkembang sangat cepat yang salah satunya dipengaruhi oleh ketidaktahuan masyarakat ada tidaknya virus hepatitis yang diidap dirinya.

Padahal, 25 persen di antara pengidap yang tidak tahu ini berpotensi menderita sirosis setelah rentang waktu 15-20 tahun virus bersarang di tubuh mereka.

Menurut Ketua Perhimpunan Peneliti Hati Indonesia Unggul Budihusodo, beberapa pola penyebaran virus hepatitis terjadi di antaranya melalui jarum tindik, alat narkotika, hubungan berisiko, tato, dan tranfusi darah.

"Pada tahun 2000 disebutkan penularan melalui suntikan putaw mengontribusi 80 persen perkembangan penularan hepatitis, bahkan polanya sangat cepat," ujar Unggul.

Laporan buletin mingguan WHO 2000 menyebutkan di dunia terdapat setidaknya 170 juta pasien terinfeksi virus hepatitis, dengan perkirakan 315.000 kasus baru muncul setiap tahun.

Sementara itu, di Indonesia tercatat tujuh juta penderita hepatitis ditemukan. Dari jumlah ini prosentase pengidap hepatitis kronik sebesar 16-77 persen, sirosis hati sebesar 22-78 persen, dan karsinoma hati (kanker hati primer) 29-69 persen.

Unggul menyebutkan bahwa sebanyak 1-4 persen jumlah total pasien sirosis akan berkembang terkena kanker hati setiap tahun. Sebagian kecil dari mereka mengalami perkembangan penyakit yang sangat cepat sehingga memerlukan tindakan transplantasi.

Selain berdampak pada kematian bagi penderita kanker hati, semakin banyaknya jumlah pasien penderita hepatitis akan memberikan dampak penurunan produktivitas kerja pasien, yang artinya akan berdampak pula pada kerugian secara ekonomi.

Penelitian para ahli hepatitis di Amerika Serikat menyebutkan kerugian ekonomi yang ditimbulkan akibat virus hepatitis mencapai 600 juta dolar Amerika setiap tahun.
Sumber: Bisnis Indonesia

Fatty Fast Food, Idleness May Vex Liver

Weight, Waist Size, Fat, and Liver Enzymes Spike in Study of People Asked to Be Idle and Overeat Fattening Fast Food
By Miranda Hitti
WebMD Medical NewsReviewed by Louise Chang, MDFeb.

13, 2008 -- Consistently overdoing it at the fast-food counter and leading an idle life may not bode well for the liver, not to mention the waist size.

So say Swedish researchers who studied 18 lean, healthy students -- mainly medical students -- who agreed to supersize themselves for science's sake.

The students were asked to gain 5% to 15% of their body weight in a month by eating at least two daily meals at fast-food restaurants and adopting a sedentary lifestyle. Their fast-food diet featured hamburgers and other foods high in saturated animal fat. The researchers reimbursed the cost of those meals.

Before-and-after measurements show a ballooning of the students' weight, waist, fat, and liver enzymes.

On average, the students gained 14 pounds, added 2.6 inches to their waistline, and padded their body fat percentage by 3.7% during the study.

Blood samples provided by the students throughout the study show a spike in levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ALT levels rose quickly -- typically within a week -- after the students started the fast-food diet.

High ALT levels can be a sign of liver damage. But other tests show that most of the students didn't develop fatty liver disease during the monthlong study.

The researchers -- who included Fredrik Nystrom, MD, PhD, of Sweden's University Hospital of Linkoping -- aren't focused on the occasional burger, but on a habitual pattern of being idle and overeating fattening foods from any source.

The study, published in the advance online edition of Gut, doesn't show which was more damaging -- bingeing on fatty food or being sedentary. And it doesn't mean that all fast-food meals are bad choices. It's possible to make healthier choices at many fast-food chains.

Gigi dan Gusi Rusak Sumber Beragam Penyakit

Hati-hati dengan gigi berlubang atau gusi yang mebengkak. Sebab gigi rusak, berlubang, dan membusuk menjadi sumber infeksi berbagai penyakit seperti mata, jantung, ginjal, diabetes serta penyakit serius lainnya.

"Awalnya gigi hanya mengalami lubang, namun jika dibiarkan tidak dirawat atau dicabut, maka akan menjalar dan menyerang mata atau organ lainnya," kata Sekjen Persatuan Dokter Gigi Indonesia (PDGI) Edi Sumarwanto di Jakarta, Jumat.

Menurut Edi, sejumlah penelitian tentang masalah gigi dan mulut telah dilakukan dan menunjukkan bahwa gigi dan gusi rusak ternyata bisa memicu risiko terserang stroke dan jantung dua kali lebih tinggi dibanding mereka yang memilki gigi sehat.

Selain itu, lanjut dia, berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan para ahli dari Kuwait (Journal of Periodontology) pada November 2005, dilaporkan bahwa satu dari lima orang penderita penyakit gusi mengalami diabetes tipe dua. Sedangkan pada penyakit darah tinggi, disebutkan dari 10 penderita radang gusi lebih dari satu di antaranya menderita darah tinggi.

Sedangkan dokter gigi dari Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi (FKG) Universitas Indonesia, drg Zaura Rini Matram menambahkan, dalam pertemuan tahunan "American Association for the Advancement of Science" pada 1999 diungkapkan bahwa sakit gigi dan gusi dapat mengakibatkan penderita diabetes semakin parah, sebab penyakit itu telah memicu tidak terkontrolnya kadar gula darah.

Zaura mengatakan, untuk menghindarkan berbagai penyakit yang diakibatkan gigi dan gusi rusak, selain rutin melakukan pemeriksaan minimal setahun sekali, setiap individu juga harus memperhatikan masalah perawatan gigi dan gusi, baik menyangkut penggunaan sikat gigi maupun cara dan waktu menggosok gigi.

"Idealnya gosok gigi dilakukan setiap kita habis makan atau minimal tiga kali sehari, terutama sebelum tidur malam," katanya.

Dia menambahkan, pola makan, jenis makanan tertama makanan manis dan lengket merupakan pemicu timbulnya sakit gigi dan gusi. Tidak kalah penting adalah mengenai cara menyikat gigi yang baik, penggunaan jenis sikat gigi yang tidak merusak, serta mengganti sikat gigi setiap tiga bulan sekali agar gigi dan gusi bebas dari bakteri pembawa penyakit.

Sumber: PdPersi

Smoking Myths

WebMD Feature from Oprah.com
By Dr. Mitzi Krockover


Think smoking makes you look sexy? That you could quit any time? Think again.

Myth 1: Smoking looks sexy.
Or at least, that's what the tobacco industry would like you to think. Well, it may look glamorous now, but just wait. Smoking causes deep wrinkles, and yellow teeth are a by-product of years of smoking. Smoking also contributes to osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones, which can cause stooped posture and broken bones — not a pretty picture. In fact, women who smoke reach menopause at a younger age than nonsmokers. And, as nonsmokers can tell you, kissing someone who smokes is not tasty, let alone sexy.

Myth 2: If I quit, I'll gain weight.
You might, but there are a lot less destructive ways to lose the weight. Most people gain no more than 10 pounds. Planning a healthy diet and increasing your activity level will help keep off the pounds. Some of the medications used to help quit smoking can also assist in delaying weight gain.

Myth 3: I'll quit when I'm pregnant.
It may be harder to get pregnant if you smoke because smoking is a major cause of infertility. Women who smoke have an increased chance of miscarriage and complications during pregnancy. Also, it might take you a couple of attempts to actually stop smoking, so your chances of success with quitting are better the earlier you start.

Myth 4: One cigarette won't hurt.
Yes, it will. Every cigarette you smoke takes minutes off your life and keeps you in a nicotine-addicted state. And, if you smoke around other people, you're hurting them — especially if they have asthma, heart disease, allergies or are very young.

Myth 5: I'm young — I'll quit in the next few years.
Nearly all adult women who smoke started as teenagers. Most teenagers who smoke daily don't expect to continue smoking, but most are still smoking five years later.

Myth 6: I smoke light cigarettes, so it's not so bad.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, these so-called "light" cigarettes have the same ingredients as regular cigarettes, including lead, ammonia, benzene, DDT, butane gas, carbon monoxide, arsenic and polonium 210.

Myth 7: Breast cancer is the number one cancer killer of women.
Nope, it's lung cancer. The increasing number of deaths due to lung cancer is directly linked to increased rates of smoking in women. Also, a major risk factor in the overall number one killer of women — heart disease — is smoking.

The Best Ways to Stop Smoking

WebMD Feature from "Health"
By Kristyn Kusek Lewis


You can quit, with these great new strategies.

Everybody knows that smoking isn’t good for you. But if you’re a woman? “Hands down, smoking is the absolute worst thing you can do to your body,” says Phyllis Greenberger, president and CEO of the Society for Women’s Health Research in Washington, D.C. In fact, new research shows that the carcinogens in cigarettes, while harmful to everyone, are more dangerous for women, who are three times as likely as men to get aggressive forms of lung cancer and more likely to develop it at an earlier age. They’re also more likely to die of lung cancer than breast cancer. So why, oh, why do 20 million American women still light up?

Because quitting, as we also know, is really, really hard—so hard that, while roughly two-thirds of all current smokers want to quit, only 5 percent actually succeeded last year, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And women, it turns out, have an even harder time quitting than men: They seem to experience stronger withdrawal symptoms, perhaps because of hormones or the bigger nicotine dose delivered to smaller female bodies.

The news isn’t all bad, though. In spite of the challenges, some women are finding creative ways to kick the butts for good. We have four of their inspiring stories here, along with a list of some of the newest stop-smoking tricks. And if you need company to help you or someone you know quit? Visit Health.com/stopsmoking to share your story.

Liz Marr smoked off-and-on throughout her 20s and picked it up again in her early 30s. “I didn’t smoke all the time,” she says. “Usually, only while socializing with other smokers.”

But then she fell in love with mountain-biking and cross-country skiing. After all, Liz lives near Boulder, Colorado, and could literally walk out her door to go mountain-biking. “Trust me,” she says, “you can’t smoke and ride a bike up a mountain!”

Rather than stop cold turkey (“That all-or-nothing mind-set made me want to smoke more,” she says), Liz gradually tapered off by avoiding the situations that made her want to smoke. “For a while, I actually stopped hanging out with friends who smoked,” she says.Liz built activities into her life where smoking wouldn’t fit: exercising, going to smoke-free restaurants, hanging out with her son. “Within a year I naturally drifted into a nonsmoking lifestyle,” she says.

Why it worked: Liz’s tactic of cutting back is an effective way to break free of smoking routines and eventually stop altogether, according to a University of Vermont review of 19 studies. The hard part is staying committed. But Liz knows that’s doable—she hasn’t smoked in 10 years. “I used to love it, but now the smell makes me sick,” she says. “It’s not who I am anymore.”

So why, oh, why do 20 million American women still light up? continued...

Natasha Gruppo loved lighting up. “Cigarettes were always there for me,” she says. “Fortunately, I realized that smoking was really like having a friend who’s holding a gun behind her back.”

She got her wake-up call two years ago when a severe asthma attack sent her to the ER. “I thought, ‘How far does this have to escalate for me to stop?’” she says.

Soon after, she saw an advertisement about a smoking-cessation class in the employee newsletter published by the university where she works as a finance counselor. Natasha figured trying to quit in a group would provide her with some much-needed support, so she joined. In the classes she learned about nicotine-replacement-therapy options and strategies for coping with withdrawal. She started wearing the patch and quit along with her classmates, who kept her accountable. And when cravings hit, she used a breathing technique she’d learned: “I closed my eyes and inhaled and exhaled three times,” she says. “When I opened my eyes, the desire had passed.” (Deep breathing is a craving-busting technique recommended by the American Cancer Society.) Eight weeks later, Natasha started forgetting to put on her patch.

“I realized that I was becoming a nonsmoker,” she says. She’s been smoke-free for almost a year.

Why it worked: Counseling programs like the one Natasha joined can triple success rates, according to the National Cancer Institute. To find a program or “quit coach” in your area, call 800-QUITNOW (800-784-8669), a free government service that connects you to helpful resources in your state. A coach can help you develop a personalized plan, offer self-help materials addressing cravings and nicotine-replacement therapy, and discuss online support.

Thirteen years ago, on her 28th birthday, Claire Celsi smoked herself sick. “I puffed 10 cigarettes in one hour,” she says. Afterward, she crumpled up her almost-empty pack, threw it away, and never lit up again. She found the strength for this drastic move with something decidedly healthier—visualization.

Four months before that smoky birthday, Claire started using a technique she had read about in Creative Visualization, a book by Shakti Gawain. First thing in the morning and whenever she caught a quiet moment, she imagined a huge cigarette wearing boxing gloves, bullying her. Next, she visualized being equals and punching back. Finally, she pictured herself growing larger than the cigarette—she was wearing the gloves, knocking it out. “The technique took only a few minutes and helped me realize that I was in control, not my cravings,” she says.

By the time her birthday arrived, Claire felt so confident that once she stubbed out her last cigarette, that was that. She’s never smoked again.

Why it worked: Some people think visualization sounds goofy, but research supports it. In a University of Akron College of Nursing study, researchers found that two years after ending the habit, twice as many of the creative-visualization users remained smoke-free, compared with those who hadn’t used the technique. Proponents say it helps reduce the stress and anxiety associated with quitting, so quitters feel more confident and motivated to stop. “Whatever it was, it gave me what I needed to quit,” Claire says. (Find out more about visualization at the Academy for Guided Imagery’s Web site, http://www.academyforguidedimagery.com.)

Four years ago, Tiffany Huda lost her mother, a lifelong smoker, to lung cancer. Pregnant at the time, Tiffany knew she couldn’t smoke. But after her son was born, she started smoking again. “It’s what I used to cope,” she says.

Then last year, unable to bear the thought of not being there for her son, Tiffany decided enough was enough. She set a quit date, a technique that experts recommend because it helps you mentally prepare. She would stop on her 35th birthday and gear up by getting healthier. She joined a gym and started eating more fruits and vegetables, and less meat.

The first three weeks after quitting were more difficult than Tiffany anticipated. “I had wild mood swings, so my doctor prescribed an antianxiety medication, which helped tremendously,” she says.

Shaking up her routines helped, too. She temporarily swore off favorite cigarette accompaniments like coffee and red wine. And because her old “smoke break spot” was on the front porch, she didn’t use her front door for six months.

Why it worked: Diet and exercise changes can help quitters avoid weight gain, one thing that makes quitting difficult for women, says Erik Augustson, PhD, MPH, a behavioral scientist at the National Cancer Institute. And a new Duke University study says cutting out caffeine and meat is important because they can make cigarettes taste better. Fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, on the other hand, don’t mask cigarettes’ nasty taste. Tiffany’s lifestyle changes gave her more energy than she could have imagined. “If I’d known life would be this good as a nonsmoker,” she says, “I would have quit a lot sooner!”

Smoking May Wreak Havoc on Sleep

Restless Sleep More Common Among Cigarette Smokers Than Nonsmokers
By Miranda Hitti
WebMD Medical News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD


Feb. 4, 2008 -- The effects of smoking may include worse sleep due to overnight nicotine withdrawal.

So say scientists from Johns Hopkins University. They studied 40 smokers who reported smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day and claimed to have no health problems.

At home, the smokers spent a night hooked up to an EEG (electroencephalogram) machine that recorded electrical activity in their brain during sleep. For comparison, 40 nonsmokers did the same thing.

Participants were also asked about whether they got restful sleep or didn't feel rested during the day.

Restless sleep was more common among smokers than among nonsmokers; 22.5% of smokers reported restless sleep compared with 5% of nonsmokers. Also, sleep EEGs had different patterns for smokers and nonsmokers.

Nicotine may play a role, note Lin Zhang, MD, PhD, and colleagues.

Zhang's team explains that nicotine, a stimulant, may make it harder to fall asleep. But as nicotine wears off during the night, nicotine withdrawal may kick in, hindering sleep.

The findings appear in the February edition of Chest.

1 Billion Tobacco Deaths This Century?

Massive Death Toll Possible Unless "Urgent Action" Is Taken, Agency Warns

By Miranda Hitti
WebMD Medical News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD


Feb. 7, 2008 -- The World Health Organization (WHO) today warned that 1 billion people worldwide could die of tobacco-related causes this century unless "urgent action" is taken.

The WHO's report includes these global statistics on tobacco deaths:
  • 100 million people died of tobacco-related causes during the 20th century.
  • Tobacco currently kills 5.4 million people per year.
  • Tobacco use makes six of the world's eight leading causes of death -- including heart disease, stroke, and cancer -- more likely.

"Of the more than 1 billion smokers alive today, around 500 million will be killed by tobacco," states the WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008.

The WHO predicts that, without intervention, tobacco will kill more than 8 million people every year by 2030, and 80% of those deaths will occur in developing countries.

The WHO proposes six policies to reduce global tobacco deaths:
  • Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies.
  • Protect people from tobacco smoke.
  • Offer help to quit tobacco use.
  • Warn about the dangers of tobacco.
  • Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship.
  • Raise taxes on tobacco.

Meninggal Saat Berolahraga, Mengapa?

Banyak kasus yang terjadi meninggal saat berolah raga. Mungkin Anda pernah mendengar berita meninggalnya Basuki, pelawak senior di Indonesia. Berikut beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan:

Hindari Olahraga Permainan

Sebetulnya olahraga sangat penting untuk kesehatan jantung. Menurut Dr. Michael Triangto, Sp.KO, olahraga bermanfaat antara lain untuk menguatkan otot, tulang, jantung, dan paru-paru, serta melancarkan peredaran darah.

Lalu, mengapa orang justru meninggal mendadak saat sedang berolahraga? Adakah olahraga tertentu yang membahayakan kesehatan? Olahraga apa saja yang baik untuk kesehatan jantung?

Menurut Kepala Departemen Kedokteran Olahraga PB PBSI (Persatuan Bulutangkis Seluruh Indonesia) ini, jenis olahraga yang dianjurkan untuk memelihara kesehatan bukan olahraga prestasi atau yang sifatnya permainan, seperti bulutangkis, tenis, sepakbola, ataupun futsal. "Olahraga yang sifatnya permainan tidak dianjurkan karena temponya bisa tiba-tiba cepat atau tiba-tiba melambat," ujarnya.

Banyak kejadian meninggal saat melakukan olahraga prestasi, terutama pada mereka yang memillki risiko tinggi mengalami gangguan jantung. "Terutama jika umur sudah di atas 50 tahun," katanya.

Untuk menghindari musibah tersebut, Dr. Michael menganjurkan mereka yang berisiko mengalami gangguan jantung memilih olahraga jenis aerobik saja. Jalan cepat, joging, berenang, bersepeda, dayung, atau senam jantung sehat tidak membahayakan kerja jantung.

Olahraga jenis aerobik dianjurkan karena memacu kerja jantung secara bertahap. Pengertiannya, olahraga jenis ini memacu jantung untuk mengambil oksigen sebanyak-banyaknya guna memenuhi kebutuhan oksigen ke seluruh tubuh.

Minimal olahraga ini dilakukan 15-30 menit secara rutin tiga kali sepekan, dalam hari yang tidak berurutan. Hal ini untuk meningkatkan kebugaran. Menghindari lift, lalu naik tangga juga termasuk olahraga aerobik. Parkir mobil di tempat yang jauh dad pintu masuk, lalu berjalan, juga sangat dianjurkan.

Bahaya di Atas 30

Mereka yang tidak terbiasa berolahraga, sebaiknya mengecek kondisi kesehatannya terlebih dulu sebelum ikut olahraga permainan. Walau terlihat sepele, hal ini harus dilakukan agar tidak fatal akibatnya.

Kematian mendadak sesaat setelah melakukan olahraga permainan terjadi karena tubuh tidak terbiasa melakukan aktivitas fisik yang berat. "Olahraga futsal, seperti yang dilakukan almarhum Basuki, termasuk dalam kategori aktivitas fisik berat. Bisa saja dia sudah mengalami kelainan pada jantung, sehingga aktivitas fisik berat tersebut menambah beban pada jantungnya," ujar Dr. Sadoso Sumosardjuno, Sp.KO, redaktur ahli Gaya Hidup Sehat.

Bila hendak melakukan olahraga permainan, cek dahulu kesehatan atau kondisi tubuh. "Jangan melakukannya secara mendadak, padahal kita tidak tahu kondisi tubuh," kata dokter senior di bidang kesehatan olahraga ini.

Selain itu, juga ada kemungkinan kebiasaan yang kurang menguntungkan. Contohnya, malam sebelum melakukan olahraga permainan tersebut, tidur terlalu larut atau memiliki kebiasaan jelek seperti merokok.

Langkah lain yang juga harus dilakukan sebelum melakukan olahraga permainan, terlebih pada mereka yang jarang atau sama sekali tidak pernah berolahraga, tentu saja dengan berlatih sedikit demi sedikit. Perubahan mendadak untuk badan yang tidak terlatih dengan baik malah bisa membahayakan.

Sebaliknya, bagi mereka yang memiliki kebiasaan jalan kaki setiap pagi dan kemudian bermain olahraga permainan, tentu saja tidak menjadi masalah. Sebab, kondisi jantungnya sudah terbiasa dengan latihan rutin.

"Hal penting yang perlu diingat adalah tidak melupakan pemanasan. Pemanasan itu sangat diperlukan," kat Dr. Sadoso. Pemanasan bukan hanya untuk olahraga permainan, tetapi setiap akan melakukan olahraga apapun.

Kalaupun kurang pemanasan dan kondisi tubuh baik-baik saja, dalam arti tidak memiliki gangguan penyakit, tidak berakibat terlalu fatal, mungkin pingsan. Namun, akan menjadi fatal bila ada penyebab lain yang menyertai.

Menurut Dr. Sadoso, "Sebenarnya tidak terlalu masalah bila mereka yang berusia di atas 30 tahun melakukan olahraga permainan kalau kondisi tubuhnya baik, kesehatan jantungnya juga baik, istirahat cukup."

Dengan kata lain, baru mau melakukan olahraga permainan ketika usia sudah di atas 30 tahun, dan jantung tidak terlatih, sebaiknya berpikir berulang-ulang kalau tidak mau mati mendadak.

Olahraga yang Cocok

Berbagai penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa olahraga teratur dapat membantu menurunkan risiko terkena penyakit jantung. Olahraga bersifat aerobik cenderung memberi keuntungan besar, tetapi beberapa di antaranya, seperti berlari, sering terlalu berat untuk persendian bagi orang yang mulai usia lanjut.

Ada beberapa jenis olahraga yang menguntungkan dan tidak terlalu sulit dilakukan orang lanjut usia. Meski begitu, Anda tetap harus minta petunjuk dokter sebelum menjalankan program olahraga.

• Renang adalah jenis olahraga yang paling lengkap. Olahraga ini menggerakkan semua otot tubuh dan jarang menyebabkan luka karena tidak membebani persendian.

• Aqua aerobics adalah aktivitas tanpa tekanan yang bersifat menyenangkan. Jenis olahraga ini seperti olahraga aerobik low impact yang menguntungkan seluruh bagian tubuh.

• Jalan adalah olahraga semua kelompok umur dan merupakan aktivitas sosial yang bersifat low impact. Anda dapat mengobrol dengan teman-teman selagi berolahraga. Jalan cepat dapat membakar kalori per kilometer yang kira-kira sama jumlahnya dengan kalori yang terbuang bila Anda lari.

• Latihan kekuatan membantu mempertahankan postur tubuh dan rasa keseimbangan. Jenis olahraga ini penting untuk orang lanjut usia.

• Latihan kelenturan merupakan latihan penting untuk orang lanjut usia. Latihan ini membuat sendi lentur dan membantu menghilangkan efek akibat serangan artritis.

• Yoga merupakan latihan kedisiplinan yang sudah ada sejak lama. Latihan ini dapat membangun kelenturan, stamina, dan pengontrolan napas, sering disebut The Fountain of Youth.

• Taichi, olahraga bela diri dari Cina, dapat memperbaiki keseimbaingan dan koordinasi. Latihan ini juga membangun kekuatan otot untuk memperbaiki kontrol motorik dan postur tubuh. Latihan ini memberi efek menenangkan bagi pikiran.

Pentingnya Pemanasan

Pemanasan sebelum olahraga diperlukan untuk mengurangi risiko cedera. Dengan pemanasan, tubuh siap berolahraga. Pemanasan akan meningkatkan aliran darah di sekujur tubuh. Ini artinya otot-otot tubuh dapat bergerak lebih mudah.

Pemanasan sebaiknya mencakup aktivitas fisik ringan. Pastikan Anda melakukan pemanasan bagi otot sebelum berolahraga. Contohnya, kalau Anda seorang pelari, beri pemanasan yang cukup pada otot kaki.

Ada beberapa tip melakukan pemanasan:
• Lakukan gerakan ringan selama 1-5 menit.
• Anda bisa melakukan jalan santai atau joging. Ini menjadi cara yang baik untuk memanaskan otot dan mempersiapkan tubuh untuk berolahraga.
• Pastikan pula Anda melakukan peregangan sebagai bagian dari pemanasan, terutama bila Anda berolahraga intensif atau dengan kecepatan tinggi.
• Jangan lupa lakukan pendinginan usai berolahraga dengan peregangan lagi. Juga lakukan aktivitas ringan seperti berjalan.

Yang penting sebelum melakukan olahraga permainan:
• Setiap orang harus mengetahui kondisi tubuhnya.
• Lebih baik berlatih sebelum bertanding.
• Jangan lupa siapkan fisik dengan tidur cukup. Tidur hanya dua jam lalu ikut olahraga permainan. bisa membahayakan keselamatan diri.

Sumber: Senior

Fakta Tentang Susu

Lemak susu tidak membahayakan tubuh. Hanya 35 persen yang diduga menaikkan kolesterol. Sebesar 65 persen tidak memiliki efek buruk pada kesehatan seperti asam lemak inoleat terkonjugasi pada lemak susu berfungsi menghambat pembentukan tumor, menurunkan beberapa resiko degeneratif dan kronis (kanker, hipertensi, diabetes) dan meningkatkan sistem pertahan tubuh. Sedangkan asam butirat pada lemak susu memiliki daya cerna tinggi dan sebagai anti kanker usus besar dan mendukung pertumbuhan bakter baik (prebioti) yang sumber utamanya adalah lemak susu.
Fesfolipid yang terdapat dalam susu terdiri dari, diantaranya, fosfatidil kolin (lesitin) dan sphingomyelin, fosfatidil inositol dan fosfatidil serin, yang berfungsi sebagai pelindung mukosa usus terhadap bakteri patogen. Fosfolipid ini merupakan bagian terbesar penyusun otak, jaringan saraf, hati, otot, jantung dan sperma berfungsi sebagai antikanker.

Dalam susu terdapat kolesterl sebanyak 13 mg/100 ml (dalam ASI sebanyak 10-140 mg/100 ml). Kolesterol ini sebagai prekursor pembentukan asam empedu, hormon steroid, vitamin D dan otak serta berperan penting dalam sintesis DNA dan pembelahan sel.

Sedangkan arachidonic acid (AA) pada susu adalah prekursor dan asam lemak utama eicosanoid. Docoso hexaenoic acid (DHA) sebagai pembentuk membran dalam proses myekinisasi sistem saraf dan lipida utama dalam otak. AA dan DHA ini berfungsi memelihara fungsi sel-sel otak dalam pertumbuhan dan perkembangan sistem saraf pusat dan sintesis prostaglandin.

Gula susu yaitu laktosa memiliki energi 2 kali besar daripada monosakarida dan meningkatkan daya cerna kalsium.

source : human health

Marijuana Linked to Early Gum Disease

Study Shows Heavy Pot Smokers Had the Most Gum Damage

By Salynn Boyles
WebMD Medical NewsReviewed by Louise Chang, MDFeb. 5, 2008 -- Gum disease is widely considered a disease of aging, but that may not be true for young adults who smoke marijuana on a regular basis.


Heavy pot use was found to be strongly associated with gum disease at age 32 in a study published in the Feb. 6 edition of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

After controlling for other risk factors for gum disease, including tobacco use, the 32-year-old study participants who smoked the most marijuana were 60% more likely to show evidence of gum disease than 32-year-olds who had never smoked pot.

Almost one in three people had some evidence of gum loss.

"We found that about a fifth of the participants actually had adult gum disease in their mid-20s and by age 32 the number was just under a third," researcher W. Murray Thompson, PhD, tells WebMD. "It is clear that smoking -- whether it is tobacco or cannabis -- damages the gums."

Marijuana, Tobacco, and Gum Disease
The study included 903 young adults followed from age 3 as participants in a larger, ongoing New Zealand comprehensive health trial. All were born at the same hospital in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1972 and March 1973.

Study participants were asked about their use of marijuana at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32; dental examinations were conducted at ages 26 and 32.

About a third reported no exposure to marijuana, while slightly under half reported some exposure, defined as smoking marijuana between one and 40 times during the previous year.

The 20% of people who smoked more than this were considered heavy marijuana users.

Compared with people who smoked no pot at all, heavy marijuana users were three times more likely to have at least one gum site with evidence of severe gum disease and 60% more likely to show evidence of mild gum disease.

Infrequent marijuana users also had more evidence of gum disease than nonusers, but not as much as frequent users.

Earlier data from the Dunedin trial showed cigarette smoking to be a strong risk factor for gum disease in the study participants, who were then in their mid-20s. This was confirmed in the latest findings from the trial, but no interaction was seen between cigarette and marijuana smoking in terms of predicting gum disease.

One good piece of news: Cigarette smokers who gave up the habit before they reached their late 20s had no more evidence of gum disease by age 32 than people who had never smoked, Thomson says.

"With the gums there is a constant fine balance between destruction and repair," he says. "Smoking tips the balance toward destruction, and if you don't smoke the balance is tipped back toward repair."

'Canary in the Coal Mine'
Thomson and colleagues conclude that smoking may prove to be the "primary behavioral risk factor" for early gum disease.

In an editorial accompanying the study, University of Washington dental professor Philippe Hujoel, PhD, writes that evidence of gum disease in young smokers could also be considered the "canary in the coal mine" for other lifestyle-related diseases like diabetes and heart disease.

Hujoel tells WebMD that since young people tend to visit dentists more than doctors, dentists may be the first to recognize the early signs of an unhealthy lifestyle.

"The dental profession has an opportunity to detect the early clinical signs of unhealthy lifestyles, including potential drug abuse, and could play a role with physicians in addressing the challenges of reducing chronic [lifestyle-related] disease," he writes.

Six Steps to a Six-Pack

The year was 1991, my senior year of high school (Yeah, I'm only 29 for those of you trying to do the math while thinking, "Boy, he's young!"). For some reason my school decided to coordinate a senior trip to White Water (a water theme park). I noticed that many of my classmates seemed to be sneaking glances at me, especially the girls. Being shirtless and slightly insecure about my physique, as most teens are, I thought maybe they were laughing at me for some reason. After what seemed like an eternity (probably an hour), someone finally commented on how great my body was, especially my six-pack. I was just about floored, although relieved! I think to myself "so that's why everyone is staring at me, because of my abs? My abs aren't that good. Don't they read Muscle & Fitness and know what really good abs look like?" Evidently not, because they were impressed with my six-pack in the making.

I know this sounds corny, but for a not-so-suave 18-year-old kid who had only kissed three girls in his life, that day was a turning point. No longer did I only train for myself and the love of training, I now had extra incentive: to attract girls! I reasoned that if I had a killer six-pack, I wouldn't even have to muster up the courage to talk to girls, they would come to me. So I trained like a madman to improve my six-pack as much as I possibly could. It worked. I soon kissed my fourth girl!
If you think six-packs are only for guys, you're wrong. Practically all guys find a lightly muscled and toned six-pack on a female very sexy. Oh, and for the two of you reading this that don't want to look more attractive in the midsection, well developed abdominals are ultra important for sport performance and for preventing and alleviating lower-back pain.

Without further ado - unless you want more pathetic stories from my youth - here are six tips for developing a six-pack.

1) Do cardio - Yes you're reading the right article. As you well know, cardiovascular exercise (cardio) helps to burn body fat. If you have an inch thick layer of fat on your midsection, even the most well developed abdominals will be hidden. I’m sure you’ve seen those poor, misguided souls in the gym who train abs like there’s no tomorrow, and yet have no visible definition whatsoever. They probably have a great six-pack, but it’s under a bunch of fat. Remember, doing crunches does not burn fat from your stomach. Heck, it doesn’t burn any significant fat from anywhere. Resistance training builds muscle and cardio burns fat! Don’t forget that simple principle.

2) Eat Right - Yeah, I know. I can here you moaning from here. You want to know how to get a six-pack and I 'm lecturing you about diet. Sorry, but I'm not here to blow smoke up your skirt and tell you I've got a new cream that you can rub on your belly that will melt away the fat; I'm not going to reveal any miracle cures today because there aren't any! Eating right is imperative if you want to get lean and stay lean.

To make progress from where you are now, you simply need to improve your eating. Notice I didn't say eat fewer Calories. I said eat better. Sometimes that may be less, sometimes it may be more. I'm not going to get into nutrition specifics here, but as a general rule, you want to eat fresh, natural foods - stuff you'd eat if you lived on a farm and raised your own crops. One exception to this rule is foods that are processed, but done so to improve its nutrient density and absorbability. For example, meal replacement drinks like Lean Body.

3) Train Abs two to three times per week - OK, now we're talking. Let's move on to actual ab training. I've heard everything from 'train abs every day' to 'train abs once per week'. Personally I think both are wrong and I'll explain why. Training abs everyday is definitely wrong due to the simple fact that muscles have to recuperate to grow. Training causes micro trauma and inflammation to a muscle, but the muscle responds by laying down new muscle, which equals bigger and stronger muscles. By the way - you do want your abdominal muscles to be bigger. That doesn't mean that your gut sticks out. It means that each bump within the six-pack is simply thicker, making the grooves between the six-pack deeper.

Training the abs every day would not allow sufficient time for them to recuperate between workouts. I do, however, agree that the abdominals recuperate faster than most other muscles. Therefore you could probably get away with training them three nonconsecutive days per week, for example: Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. On the other hand, you could err on the side of caution and train them only twice per week, for example: Monday and Thursday. Either way should suffice.

4) Train abs with lower reps - Forget those sets of 50 crunches and especially those one-hour ab classes! It is well accepted among us exercise science geeks that eight to twelve repetitions is optimal for building fast twitch muscle fibers. The rectus abdominus (abs) muscle is just that - a predominately fast twitch muscle. Therefore, you should use enough resistance such that you can only perform eight to twelve repetitions before reaching failure. If you're a beginner, your bodyweight will likely be enough.

On the other hand, experienced trainees will likely need to add resistance to make the exercise more difficult. If you're doing regular crunches, the easiest way to do this is to hold a weight (plate or dumbbell) or medicine ball over your chest while performing crunches. If you're doing cable crunches, simply increase the weight on the weight stack. Don't forget, you can always make the set harder by pausing at the top in the contracted position and by lowering yourself very slowly to the starting position. You should be able to complete 12 reps in this manner before adding extra weight.

5) Train ALL areas of the abdomen - When we think of training abs, we typically think of doing crunches. If you typically think of "sit-ups," let me be the first to welcome you to the new millennium. Crunches primarily stress the upper abdominal muscles, while reverse crunches* primarily stress the lower abdominals. Some old school experts will say that you cannot stress upper vs. lower abs and that the whole rectus abdominus functions as one muscle. Wrong! This debate has been settled years ago with a slew of studies showing that the upper and lower abs each respond differently to different exercises. The last area of the abdominal area that you really need to train is the oblique muscles, which lie on the sides of your abdominal area. Obliques respond to twisting and side bending movements.

Let me give you a word of caution here: DO NOT train the oblique muscles with low reps, only with high reps. Remember, eight to twelve reps builds muscle which is what you want to do in the abs themselves. However, you don't want thick oblique muscles! You want fairly thin but defined obliques. Overly developed obliques can give the false appearance of "love handles" on the sides. Remember: thick abdominals, thin obliques.


6) Don’t forget the TVA - The Transverse Abdominus (TVA) muscle is the only muscle of the abdominal area that doesn't cause movement of the spine. Its job is basically that of a girdle: to keep the abdomen pulled in nice and tight, giving the midsection a smaller and tighter appearance. I'm sure you've seen people who are quite lean, they may even have a six-pack, but have a belly that seems to stick out quite a bit. This is made possible by a weak TVA muscle. Think about this: in clothes, people can't actually see your abdominal development; but what they can see is whether or not your TVA is doing its job.

Training the TVA is very easy. Simply blow all of your air out and suck your abdomen in as far as you can, bringing your navel closer to your spine. You can also train the muscle throughout the day by simply 'sucking your stomach in.'’ That may seem rather goofy, but it's very good for developing the TVA. Because you're training the TVA for neurological development rather than muscular development, you can (and should) train it everyday.

source: binaraga.info

Serat untuk hindari Wasir

Sulit BAB (buang air besar), salah satu pertanda wasir. Pemilihan bahan makanan yang tepat dapat mencegah wasir.

Wasir atau ambeien adalah terjadinya pelebaran pembuluh darah balik (vena) di daerah anus sehingga terjadi tekanan pada pembuluh darah di sekitar daerah tersebut. Mengakibatkan pembuluh darah sekitar anus kurang elastis hingga aliran darah terhambat dan membesar.

Penderita wasir bisa mengalami pelebaran pembuluh darah, robek, berdarah dan meradang. Keluhan yang sering terjadi adalah berdarah saat BAB, atau hanya timbul benjolan saat BAB. Sering timbul rasa perih, panas, sakit, gatal dan tidak nyaman. Benjolan ada yang bisa kembali masuk ada pula yang tidak bisa. Saat tidak kembali, BAB akan mengalami kesulitan, tekanan dibawah perut yang membesar, menyebabkan pembuluh darah makin melebar.

Penyebab wasir beragam, faktor keturunan dan gaya hidup sangat dominan mempengaruhi. Jarang berolah raga memperbesar potensi wasir. Pemilihan makanan juga mempengaruhi wasir. Makanan kurang serat akan memicu sulit BAB. Disarankan untuk mengkonsumsi sayuran, buah-buahan dan minum air untuk memperlancar BAB.

Ada empat stadium wasir:
Stadium I, wasir didalam dubur.
Stadium II, saat BAB wasir keluar dan bisa masuk sendiri.
Stadium III, wasir keluar sendiri dan bisa masuk sendiri.
Stadium IV, wasir diluar terus.

Wasir pada stadium awal masih bisa disembuhkan dengan obat-obatan minum, atau obat luar pada wasir, atau perubahan gaya hidup. Wasir sudah parah harus menjalani operasi.


sumber sindo

High-Fructose Corn Syrup - The New Bad Boy in Town

see related article in Bahasa Indonesia

Move over trans fat, here comes high fructose corn syrup? Lately there is talk about high fructose corn syrup being the new bad boy ingredient. The explosion of products containing it may be a big reason why America is in the middle of an obesity epidemic...

Well, not so fast everyone. If you want to point the finger at something, point it at excess calories in the form of sweetened liquid...plain and simple (Although there are several changes in our diet and lifestyle over the past 25 years that you can point the rest of your fingers at too).

A study (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition July 2007) found no difference between the soda sweetened with sugar and soda sweetened with high fructose corn syrup. Researchers from the University of Washington tested out the subsequent hunger, thirst, and satiety in 37 men and women 20-minutes after drinking cola with sucrose, cola with high fructose corn syrup, diet cola, and low fat milk. The amount of calories eaten at lunch two hours later was also measured. It bears repeating: no difference between the calories eaten at the next meal and the satiety 20 minutes later between the two sweetened sodas.

But maybe there is some difference in the body's response to a high intake of high fructose corn syrup that goes beyond satiety and subsequent calories consumed. Enter the next recent study on high fructose corn syrup. This study was recently presented at the American Chemical Society annual meeting. Researchers from Rutgers University tested 11 soft drinks sweetened with high fructose corn syrup and detected high levels of compounds that are normally raised in the blood of people with diabetes - reactive carbonyls. These compounds have been linked to diabetic complications such as tissue damage. Reactive carbonyls were not detected in soda sweetened with sucrose (table sugar). This is the first I've heard or read about reactive carbonyls so I'm looking forward to more research on these compounds.

In the meantime, can we agree that maybe America's obesity crisis is due (in part) to the fact that our average daily calories has increased steadily over the past fifty years at the same time that are exercise and energy output has steadily decreased? I hate to make it sound this simple (because it isn't) but...we are eating and drinking more calories than our bodies are burning. That is not to say that I'm loving high fructose corn syrup. I think many of us could benefit from trimming off some junk calories and calories coming from beverages that contribute no other nutrients (like soda) should probably be first on the chopping block.

Soft drink consumption has increased by more than 5 times in the past 50 years. It's no surprise then that soda is now the leading source of refined sugars in the American diet. On that fact alone, we should be taking a hard look at our soda gluttony.

see related article in Bahasa Indonesia

source : webmd